Public Service Commissions, both at the Union and at the State level, are amongst the most important Public Institutions with long traditions which have served well. The establishment of this Institution had its origin in the history of Indian nationalism and the persistent demand of the leaders of freedom movement for progressive Indianisation of the Civil Service under British Raj.
The Montagu-Chelmsford Report accepted in principle the demand for Indianisation of the higher civil services and accordingly a provision for this was made in the Government of India Act, 1919. The Royal Commission of the Superior Civil Service in India under the Chairmanship of Lord Lee, in its 1924 Report, recommended setting up of Public Service Commission of India. The Public Service Commission of India was set up on 1st October, 1926 under the Chairmanship of Sir Ross Barker.
The first Commission at the provincial level was the Madras Service Commission established in 1930 under a 1929 Act of the Madras legislature. The Government of India Act, 1935 provided for the establishment of a Public Service Commission for each Province. Accordingly, under the 1935 Act seven Public Service Commissions were established in 1937 for the provinces of Assam (at Shillong), Bengal (at Calcutta), Bombay and Sindh (at Bombay), Central Provinces, Bihar and Orissa (at Ranchi), Madras (at Madras), Punjab and North-West (at Lahore) and the United Provinces (at Allahabad).